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Thursday, February 25, 2010

Bukti Arkeologi Membuktikan Tamaddun Manusia Disebabkan Oleh Agama




Seorang ahli arkeologi bernama Professor Schmidt sedang menggali satu situs arkeologiu yang berbentuk sebuah “kuil”. Tempat itu adalah di Turki dan dipanggil dengan nama “Göbekli Tepe”.

Yang memeningkan kepala ahli-ahli arkeologi sedunia dengan penemuan ini adalah ia menghancurkan kesemua teori berkaitan tamaddun.
Teori Barat menyatakan bahawa tamaddun manusia bermula dengan manusia belajar bertani dan kemudiannya berdagang seterusnya membina bandar dan kota dan akhir sekali baru mencipta agama.

Penemuan “Göbekli Tepe” menghancurkan teori ini sama sekali. Malahan, ia menunjukkan bahawa sebelum manusia belajar bertani, mereka terlebih dahulu “mengamalkan agama”. Kuil ini dibina sebelum wujudnya kerajaan atau manusia pertama lagi. Dan kuil ini dibina kira2 11 ribua tahun sebelum wujudnya tamaddun manusia yang pertama dalam sejarah (Tamaddun Sumeria).

Ini menunjukkan sebelum manusia membina tamaddun, mereka terlebih dahulu membina tempat beribadat. Dari tempat ibadat ini, baru mereka belajar bertani, berdagang dan akhirnya membina kota disekeliling tempat ibadah mereka.

Prof Schimdt berkata ada tanda-tanda menunjukkan bahawa manusia pada zaman itu hidup secara nomad tetapi berkumpul di tapak “Göbekli Tepe” untuk beribadah. Setelah lama beribadah, maka mereka mula membina “tempat ibadah” seperti yang dijumpai itu. Maka, tempat ibadah itulah kemudiannya yang telah menyebabkan manusia berhenti hidup secara nomad dan akhirnya membawa kepada kehidupan bertamaddun.

Dengan kata lain, tempat ibadah inilah yang menjana tamaddun manusia, bukan sebaliknya. Ini selari dengan apa yang kita belajar dalam Al Quran dan Hadeeth bahawa Nabi Adam AS setelah dihantar ke Bumi mengembangkan generasi manusia dengan mengajar mereka agama terlebih dahulu, bukan tamaddun.

Nabi Adam yang pernah duduk di Syurga masakan tidak mengetahui ilmu-ilmu berkaitan pembinaan kota dan tamaddun. Namun, yang diajar oleh Nabi Adam kepada generasi manusia selepas beliau adalah agama semata-mata.

Maka, sekarang terbukti agamalah sebabnya manusia menjadi bertamaddun dan bukan sebaliknya.

Penemuan arkeologi “Göbekli Tepe” membuktikan apa yang kita belajar selama ini berkenaan dengan kisah Nabi Adam AS.

Wallahualam bissawab

Tulang Besi


History in the Remaking.
A temple complex in Turkey that predates even the pyramids is rewriting the story of human evolution.

Berthold Steinhilber / Laif-Redux
A pillar at the Gobekli Tepe temple near Sanliurfa, Turkey, the oldest known temple in the world
By Patrick Symmes | NEWSWEEK
Published Feb 19, 2010
From the magazine issue dated Mar 1, 2010

They call it potbelly hill, after the soft, round contour of this final lookout in southeastern Turkey. To the north are forested mountains. East of the hill lies the biblical plain of Harran, and to the south is the Syrian border, visible 20 miles away, pointing toward the ancient lands of Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent, the region that gave rise to human civilization. And under our feet, according to archeologist Klaus Schmidt, are the stones that mark the spot—the exact spot—where humans began that ascent.

Standing on the hill at dawn, overseeing a team of 40 Kurdish diggers, the German-born archeologist waves a hand over his discovery here, a revolution in the story of human origins. Schmidt has uncovered a vast and beautiful temple complex, a structure so ancient that it may be the very first thing human beings ever built.

The site isn't just old, it redefines old: the temple was built 11,500 years ago—a staggering 7,000 years before the Great Pyramid, and more than 6,000 years before Stonehenge first took shape. The ruins are so early that they predate villages, pottery, domesticated animals, and even agriculture—the first embers of civilization. In fact, Schmidt thinks the temple itself, built after the end of the last Ice Age by hunter-gatherers, became that ember—the spark that launched mankind toward farming, urban life, and all that followed.

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Göbekli Tepe—the name in Turkish for "potbelly hill"—lays art and religion squarely at the start of that journey. After a dozen years of patient work, Schmidt has uncovered what he thinks is definitive proof that a huge ceremonial site flourished here, a "Rome of the Ice Age," as he puts it, where hunter-gatherers met to build a complex religious community. Across the hill, he has found carved and polished circles of stone, with terrazzo flooring and double benches. All the circles feature massive T-shaped pillars that evoke the monoliths of Easter Island.

Though not as large as Stonehenge—the biggest circle is 30 yards across, the tallest pillars 17 feet high—the ruins are astonishing in number. Last year Schmidt found his third and fourth examples of the temples. Ground-penetrating radar indicates that another 15 to 20 such monumental ruins lie under the surface. Schmidt's German-Turkish team has also uncovered some 50 of the huge pillars, including two found in his most recent dig season that are not just the biggest yet, but, according to carbon dating, are the oldest monumental artworks in the world.

The new discoveries are finally beginning to reshape the slow-moving consensus of archeology. Göbekli Tepe is "unbelievably big and amazing, at a ridiculously early date," according to Ian Hodder, director of Stanford's archeology program. Enthusing over the "huge great stones and fantastic, highly refined art" at Göbekli, Hodder—who has spent decades on rival Neolithic sites—says: "Many people think that it changes everything…It overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong."

Schmidt's thesis is simple and bold: it was the urge to worship that brought mankind together in the very first urban conglomerations. The need to build and maintain this temple, he says, drove the builders to seek stable food sources, like grains and animals that could be domesticated, and then to settle down to guard their new way of life. The temple begat the city.

This theory reverses a standard chronology of human origins, in which primitive man went through a "Neolithic revolution" 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. In the old model, shepherds and farmers appeared first, and then created pottery, villages, cities, specialized labor, kings, writing, art, and—somewhere on the way to the airplane—organized religion. As far back as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, thinkers have argued that the social compact of cities came first, and only then the "high" religions with their great temples, a paradigm still taught in American high schools.

Religion now appears so early in civilized life—earlier than civilized life, if Schmidt is correct—that some think it may be less a product of culture than a cause of it, less a revelation than a genetic inheritance. The archeologist Jacques Cauvin once posited that "the beginning of the gods was the beginning of agriculture," and Göbekli may prove his case.

The builders of Göbekli Tepe could not write or leave other explanations of their work. Schmidt speculates that nomadic bands from hundreds of miles in every direction were already gathering here for rituals, feasting, and initiation rites before the first stones were cut. The religious purpose of the site is implicit in its size and location. "You don't move 10-ton stones for no reason," Schmidt observes. "Temples like to be on high sites," he adds, waving an arm over the stony, round hilltop. "Sanctuaries like to be away from the mundane world."

Unlike most discoveries from the ancient world, Göbekli Tepe was found intact, the stones upright, the order and artistry of the work plain even to the un-trained eye. Most startling is the elaborate carving found on about half of the 50 pillars Schmidt has unearthed. There are a few abstract symbols, but the site is almost covered in graceful, naturalistic sculptures and bas-reliefs of the animals that were central to the imagination of hunter-gatherers. Wild boar and cattle are depicted, along with totems of power and intelligence, like lions, foxes, and leopards. Many of the biggest pillars are carved with arms, including shoulders, elbows, and jointed fingers.

The T shapes appear to be towering humanoids but have no faces, hinting at the worship of ancestors or humanlike deities. "In the Bible it talks about how God created man in his image," says Johns Hopkins archeologist Glenn Schwartz. Göbekli Tepe "is the first time you can see humans with that idea, that they resemble gods."
The temples thus offer unexpected proof that mankind emerged from the 140,000-year reign of hunter-gatherers with a ready vocabulary of spiritual imagery, and capable of huge logistical, economic, and political efforts. A Catholic born in Franconia, Germany, Schmidt wanders the site in a white turban, pointing out the evidence of that transition. "The people here invented agriculture. They were the inventors of cultivated plants, of domestic architecture," he says.

Göbekli sits at the Fertile Crescent's northernmost tip, a productive borderland on the shoulder of forests and within sight of plains. The hill was ideally situated for ancient hunters. Wild gazelles still migrate past twice a year as they did 11 millennia ago, and birds fly overhead in long skeins. Genetic mapping shows that the first domestication of wheat was in this immediate area—perhaps at a mountain visible in the distance—a few centuries after Göbekli's founding. Animal husbandry also began near here—the first domesticated pigs came from the surrounding area in about 8000 B.C., and cattle were domesticated in Turkey before 6500 B.C. Pottery followed. Those discoveries then flowed out to places like Çatalhöyük, the oldest-known Neolithic village, which is 300 miles to the west.

The artists of Göbekli Tepe depicted swarms of what Schmidt calls "scary, nasty" creatures: spiders, scorpions, snakes, triple-fanged monsters, and, most common of all, carrion birds. The single largest carving shows a vulture poised over a headless human. Schmidt theorizes that human corpses were ex-posed here on the hilltop for consumption by birds—what a Tibetan would call a sky burial. Sifting the tons of dirt removed from the site has produced very few human bones, however, perhaps because they were removed to distant homes for ancestor worship. Absence is the source of Schmidt's great theoretical claim. "There are no traces of daily life," he explains. "No fire pits. No trash heaps. There is no water here."

Everything from food to flint had to be imported, so the site "was not a village," Schmidt says. Since the temples predate any known settlement anywhere, Schmidt concludes that man's first house was a house of worship: "First the temple, then the city," he insists.

Some archeologists, like Hodder, the Neolithic specialist, wonder if Schmidt has simply missed evidence of a village or if his dating of the site is too precise. But the real reason the ruins at Göbekli remain almost unknown, not yet incorporated in textbooks, is that the evidence is too strong, not too weak. "The problem with this discovery," as Schwartz of Johns Hopkins puts it, "is that it is unique."

No other monumental sites from the era have been found. Before Göbekli, humans drew stick figures on cave walls, shaped clay into tiny dolls, and perhaps piled up small stones for shelter or worship. Even after Göbekli, there is little evidence of sophisticated building. Dating of ancient sites is highly contested, but Çatalhöyük is probably about 1,500 years younger than Göbekli, and features no carvings or grand constructions. The walls of Jericho, thought until now to be the oldest monumental construction by man, were probably started more than a thousand years after Göbekli. Huge temples did emerge again—but the next unambiguous example dates from 5,000 years later, in southern Iraq.

The site is such an outlier that an American archeologist who stumbled on it in the 1960s simply walked away, unable to interpret what he saw. On a hunch, Schmidt followed the American's notes to the hilltop 15 years ago, a day he still recalls with a huge grin. He saw carved flint everywhere, and recognized a Neolithic quarry on an adjacent hill, with unfinished slabs of limestone hinting at some monument buried nearby. "In one minute—in one second—it was clear," the bearded, sun-browned archeologist recalls. He too considered walking away, he says, knowing that if he stayed, he would have to spend the rest of his life digging on the hill.

Now 55 and a staff member at the German Archaeological Institute, Schmidt has joined a long line of his countrymen here, reaching back to Heinrich Schliemann, the discoverer of Troy. He has settled in, marrying a Turkish woman and making a home in a modest "dig house" in the narrow streets of old Urfa. Decades of work lie ahead.
Disputes are normal at the site—the workers, Schmidt laments, are divided into three separate clans who feud constantly. ("Three groups," the archeologist says, exasperated. "Not two. Three!") So far Schmidt has uncovered less than 5 percent of the site, and he plans to leave some temples untouched so that future researchers can examine them with more sophisticated tools.

Whatever mysterious rituals were conducted in the temples, they ended abruptly before 8000 B.C., when the entire site was buried, deliberately and all at once, Schmidt believes. The temples had been in decline for a thousand years—later circles are less than half the size of the early ones, indicating a lack of resources or motivation among the worshipers.

This "clear digression" followed by a sudden burial marks "the end of a very strange culture," Schmidt says. But it was also the birth of a new, settled civilization, humanity having now exchanged the hilltops of hunters for the valleys of farmers and shepherds. New ways of life demand new religious practices, Schmidt suggests, and "when you have new gods, you have to get rid of the old ones."


17 comments:

Anonymous said...

Sahabat Kanan,

Assalamualaikum tulang besi,

byk2kanlah artikel dan komen anta mcm di atas.

Mcm ni barulah kelas.

bagusnya teori agama kemudian boleh ditolak. sama2 kita berdoa yg satu hari ada bukti arkeologi pulak, bahawa manusia asalnya mentauhidkan Allah.

Tulang Besi said...

SK,

Sebenarnya,komen2 kau yang takda klas. Semua lembab dan kosong.

hahahahaha

Tulang Besi said...

Maksud sebenar SK:

Janganlah maki UMNO dan Fraksi UMNO dalam PAS lagi.

Sebatang kara said...

Macam ni lah baru ilmiah sikit. Daripada duk merapudana.

Anonymous said...

Sahabat kanan,

SK,

Sebenarnya,komen2 kau yang takda klas. Semua lembab dan kosong.

hahahahaha


Mcm ni kot cnth komen Tulang besi yang "berisi" dan "kelas", yg "slant towards technical"...ish..ish ..ish...

Maksud sebenar SK:

Janganlah maki UMNO dan Fraksi UMNO dalam PAS lagi.


Maksud aku takde kelas, takde isi dan "lembab" artikel-artikel hg yg maki geng2 yg hg tak suka tu.

ANTI BABI said...


Maksud aku takde kelas, takde isi dan "lembab" artikel-artikel hg yg maki geng2 yg hg tak suka tu.
.

Kelas amende kau ada, judi pun kau sama halalkan. Kelas la tu? Kao memang otak macam babi

Anonymous said...

Kelas amende kau ada, judi pun kau sama halalkan. Kelas la tu? Kao memang otak macam babi

Bila pulak aku halalkan judi...

krja fitnah ni mmg kerja later ego tulang besi..

ANTI BABI said...

SK ni kata boleh takpa, halal tak boleh.

Serupa la tu, SK bingai woii

Tulang Besi said...

Sebatang kara,

Setakat ni takda satu bukti pun kau dapat bawa membuktikan artikel2 aku merapu.

Yang kau merapu adalah sampai sokong UMNO

Sebatang kara said...

Sebatang kara,

Setakat ni takda satu bukti pun kau dapat bawa membuktikan artikel2 aku merapu.

Yang kau merapu adalah sampai sokong UMNO


Itu bagi TB. Bagi ramai lagi oghang termasuk saya, banyak artikel TB yang duk merapudana.

Alahai TB, oghang puji artikel ni pung nak melompat kerrr.

Sebatang kara said...

Apa kata TB bukak satu artikel yang betui-betui merapu. Pasal doraemon ka, otromen ka, gaban ka, upin dan ipin kaa. Daripada duk bertelagah sampai ke sudah nih, baik kita merapu. Boleh juga sama-sama gelak. Boleh gak merapatkan silaturahim. Tak gitu semua.

Anonymous said...

sahabat kanan,
SK ni kata boleh takpa, halal tak boleh.

Serupa la tu, SK bingai woii


Judi tu adalah haram, tanyalah mana2 org UMNO, semua kata haram.

Tulang besi, bila hang nak jwb, halal ke tak maki org ni? Boleh ke tak boleh?

Daripada duk bertelagah sampai ke sudah nih, baik kita merapu. Boleh juga sama-sama gelak. Boleh gak merapatkan silaturahim.

Tak taulah kalau si Tulang ni nak terima cadangan hang. Org kata dia baguih pun, dia pi kot lain. Nak bergaduh pun pi la thread yg tgh dok debat.

Org kalau hati dah hitam, dah keras, susah bwk bicara. Kita kata dia bagus, dia panggil kita babi lagi. Astaghfirullah.

Dia dok berat kat hindu yg caci Islam dari sedara seislam dia sendiri dan sedara seislam yg bukan dok maki dia pun, yg kalau dia sakit, kita pun doa kat dia mintak cepat baik,so org mcm ni..nak buat mcm mana?

Tulang Besi said...


Judi tu adalah haram, tanyalah mana2 org UMNO, semua kata haram.

Tulang besi, bila hang nak jwb, halal ke tak maki org ni? Boleh ke tak boleh?
.

Judi haram tapi makan duit judi boleh.
Maknanya UMNO menghalalkan judi lah sebab boleh tu dalam bahasa arab bermaksud halal.

Tak paham-paham lagi.

ANTI BABI said...

Wooii SK anak babi,

Apasal kao bingai. Bila UMNO dah mentekedaghah duit judi tu, ertinya diorang dah bolehkan makan duit judi.

Maknanya, diorang telah "halal"kan judi.

Ada paham tak? Apasal kao bingai? Kau dulu tak makan sampah macam babi lain ke?

ANTI BABI said...

Bingai punya SK sebab otak lembab macam babi.

gemuk UMNO sebab duit judi ni. Kalau benda tu tak kira perbuatan menghalalkan, aku tak tau la.

Orang gila pun buleh paham.

Cua kau jawab ni: Kalau UMNO tak kata judi halal, sbeab apa buat Loteri UMNO 1951?

Jawab SK Babi jawab

Tulang Besi said...



Itu bagi TB. Bagi ramai lagi oghang termasuk saya, banyak artikel TB yang duk merapudana.

Alahai TB, oghang puji artikel ni pung nak melompat kerrr.
.

Ramai orang tu geng UMNO hang la.

Anonymous said...

sahabat kanan,

Judi haram tapi makan duit judi boleh.
Maknanya UMNO menghalalkan judi lah sebab boleh tu dalam bahasa arab bermaksud halal.


Makan duit judi ke main judi ke, semua tu haram.

kau tanya org UMNO boleh makan duit judi ke tak? semua kata tak boleh.

Itu dr segi lughah, dari segi syarak lebih2 la tak boleh.

Kau bila nak jawab..maki hamun tu halal ke haram? kau dok maki tu maknanya boleh ke maki sedangkan Allah haramkan?

Apasal kao bingai. Bila UMNO dah mentekedaghah duit judi tu, ertinya diorang dah bolehkan makan duit judi.

Buat benda maksiat ni, sapa2 pun kata tak boleh, buat bukan maknanya izinkan.

Hang ni maksum ke? tak pernah buat dosa ke?

Apakah maksud hang, bila buat sesuatu dosa, hang halalkan benda tu?Siapa yg bingai sekarang ni?

gemuk UMNO sebab duit judi ni. Kalau benda tu tak kira perbuatan menghalalkan, aku tak tau la.

Benda tu tak dikira menghalalkan. Ada pernah UMNO kat halal?

Cua kau jawab ni: Kalau UMNO tak kata judi halal, sbeab apa buat Loteri UMNO 1951?

Jawab SK Babi jawab


Mudah saja jawapan aku, kalau maki hamun tu haram, awat hang dok maki aku ni babi?

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